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Robin Hood is a legendary heroic outlaw originally depicted in English folklore and subsequently featured in literature and film.
According to legend, he was a highly skilled archer and swordsman. In some versions of the legend, he is depicted as being of noble birth, and in modern retellings he is sometimes depicted as having fought in the Crusades before returning to England to find his lands taken by the Sheriff.
In the oldest known versions he is instead a member of the yeoman class. Traditionally depicted dressed in Lincoln green , he is said to have robbed from the rich and given to the poor.
Through retellings, additions, and variations, a body of familiar characters associated with Robin Hood has been created.
These include his lover, Maid Marian , his band of outlaws, the Merry Men , and his chief opponent, the Sheriff of Nottingham.
The Sheriff is often depicted as assisting Prince John in usurping the rightful but absent King Richard , to whom Robin Hood remains loyal.
His partisanship of the common people and his hostility to the Sheriff of Nottingham are early recorded features of the legend, but his interest in the rightfulness of the king is not, and neither is his setting in the reign of Richard I.
He became a popular folk figure in the Late Middle Ages , and the earliest known ballads featuring him are from the 15th century s.
There have been numerous variations and adaptations of the story over the subsequent years, and the story continues to be widely represented in literature, film, and television.
Robin Hood is considered one of the best known tales of English folklore. The historicity of Robin Hood is not proven and has been debated for centuries.
There are numerous references to historical figures with similar names that have been proposed as possible evidence of his existence, some dating back to the late 13th century.
At least eight plausible origins to the story have been mooted by historians and folklorists, including suggestions that "Robin Hood" was a stock alias used by or in reference to bandits.
The first clear reference to "rhymes of Robin Hood" is from the alliterative poem Piers Plowman , thought to have been composed in the s, followed shortly afterwards by a quotation of a later common proverb,  "many men speak of Robin Hood and never shot his bow",  in Friar Daw's Reply c.
However, the earliest surviving copies of the narrative ballads that tell his story date to the second half of the 15th century, or the first decade of the 16th century.
In these early accounts, Robin Hood's partisanship of the lower classes, his devotion to the Virgin Mary and associated special regard for women, his outstanding skill as an archer , his anti-clericalism , and his particular animosity towards the Sheriff of Nottingham are already clear.
The latter has been part of the legend since at least the later 15th century, when he is mentioned in a Robin Hood play script.
In modern popular culture, Robin Hood is typically seen as a contemporary and supporter of the lateth-century king Richard the Lionheart , Robin being driven to outlawry during the misrule of Richard's brother John while Richard was away at the Third Crusade.
This view first gained currency in the 16th century. The early compilation, A Gest of Robyn Hode , names the king as 'Edward'; and while it does show Robin Hood accepting the King's pardon, he later repudiates it and returns to the greenwood.
The setting of the early ballads is usually attributed by scholars to either the 13th century or the 14th, although it is recognised they are not necessarily historically consistent.
The early ballads are also quite clear on Robin Hood's social status: he is a yeoman. While the precise meaning of this term changed over time, including free retainers of an aristocrat and small landholders, it always referred to commoners.
The essence of it in the present context was "neither a knight nor a peasant or 'husbonde' but something in between".
As well as ballads, the legend was also transmitted by 'Robin Hood games' or plays that were an important part of the late medieval and early modern May Day festivities.
The first record of a Robin Hood game was in in Exeter , but the reference does not indicate how old or widespread this custom was at the time.
The Robin Hood games are known to have flourished in the later 15th and 16th centuries. Written after ,  it contains many of the elements still associated with the legend, from the Nottingham setting to the bitter enmity between Robin and the local sheriff.
The first printed version is A Gest of Robyn Hode c. Other early texts are dramatic pieces, the earliest being the fragmentary Robyn Hod and the Shryff off Notyngham  c.
These are particularly noteworthy as they show Robin's integration into May Day rituals towards the end of the Middle Ages; Robyn Hod and the Shryff off Notyngham , among other points of interest, contains the earliest reference to Friar Tuck.
The plots of neither "the Monk" nor "the Potter" are included in the Gest ; and neither is the plot of " Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne ", which is probably at least as old as those two ballads although preserved in a more recent copy.
Each of these three ballads survived in a single copy, so it is unclear how much of the medieval legend has survived, and what has survived may not be typical of the medieval legend.
It has been argued that the fact that the surviving ballads were preserved in written form in itself makes it unlikely they were typical; in particular, stories with an interest for the gentry were by this view more likely to be preserved.
The character of Robin in these first texts is rougher edged than in his later incarnations. In "Robin Hood and the Monk", for example, he is shown as quick tempered and violent, assaulting Little John for defeating him in an archery contest; in the same ballad Much the Miller's Son casually kills a 'little page ' in the course of rescuing Robin Hood from prison.
As it happens the next traveller is not poor, but it seems in context that Robin Hood is stating a general policy. The first explicit statement to the effect that Robin Hood habitually robbed from the rich to give the poor can be found in John Stow 's Annales of England , about a century after the publication of the Gest.
Within Robin Hood's band, medieval forms of courtesy rather than modern ideals of equality are generally in evidence. The only character to use a quarterstaff in the early ballads is the potter, and Robin Hood does not take to a staff until the 17th-century Robin Hood and Little John.
The political and social assumptions underlying the early Robin Hood ballads have long been controversial. Holt influentially argued that the Robin Hood legend was cultivated in the households of the gentry, and that it would be mistaken to see in him a figure of peasant revolt.
He is not a peasant but a yeoman, and his tales make no mention of the complaints of the peasants, such as oppressive taxes.
By the early 15th century at the latest, Robin Hood had become associated with May Day celebrations, with revellers dressing as Robin or as members of his band for the festivities.
This was not common throughout England, but in some regions the custom lasted until Elizabethan times, and during the reign of Henry VIII , was briefly popular at court.
A complaint of , brought to the Star Chamber , accuses men of acting riotously by coming to a fair as Robin Hood and his men; the accused defended themselves on the grounds that the practice was a long-standing custom to raise money for churches, and they had not acted riotously but peaceably.
It is from the association with the May Games that Robin's romantic attachment to Maid Marian or Marion apparently stems.
The earliest preserved script of a Robin Hood play is the fragmentary Robyn Hod and the Shryff off Notyngham  This apparently dates to the s and circumstantial evidence suggests it was probably performed at the household of Sir John Paston.
This fragment appears to tell the story of Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne. This includes a dramatic version of the story of Robin Hood and the Curtal Friar and a version of the first part of the story of Robin Hood and the Potter.
Neither of these ballads are known to have existed in print at the time, and there is no earlier record known of the "Curtal Friar" story.
The publisher describes the text as a ' playe of Robyn Hood, verye proper to be played in Maye games ', but does not seem to be aware that the text actually contains two separate plays.
These plays drew on a variety of sources, including apparently "A Gest of Robin Hood", and were influential in fixing the story of Robin Hood to the period of Richard I.
Skelton himself is presented in the play as acting the part of Friar Tuck. Some scholars have conjectured that Skelton may have indeed written a lost Robin Hood play for Henry VIII's court, and that this play may have been one of Munday's sources.
Robin Hood is known to have appeared in a number of other lost and extant Elizabethan plays. In it, the character Valentine is banished from Milan and driven out through the forest where he is approached by outlaws who, upon meeting him, desire him as their leader.
They comment, "By the bare scalp of Robin Hood's fat friar, This fellow were a king for our wild faction! When asked about the exiled Duke Senior, the character of Charles says that he is "already in the forest of Arden, and a many merry men with him; and there they live like the old Robin Hood of England".
It is about half finished and his death in may have interrupted writing. Jonson's only pastoral drama, it was written in sophisticated verse and included supernatural action and characters.
The London theatre closure by the Puritans interrupted the portrayal of Robin Hood on the stage. The theatres would reopen with the Restoration in This short play adapts the story of the king's pardon of Robin Hood to refer to the Restoration.
However, Robin Hood appeared on the 18th-century stage in various farces and comic operas. With the advent of printing came the Robin Hood broadside ballads.
Exactly when they displaced the oral tradition of Robin Hood ballads is unknown but the process seems to have been completed by the end of the 16th century.
Near the end of the 16th century an unpublished prose life of Robin Hood was written, and included in the Sloane Manuscript. Largely a paraphrase of the Gest, it also contains material revealing that the author was familiar with early versions of a number of the Robin Hood broadside ballads.
However, the Gest was reprinted from time to time throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. No surviving broadside ballad can be dated with certainty before the 17th century, but during that century, the commercial broadside ballad became the main vehicle for the popular Robin Hood legend.
The broadside ballads were fitted to a small repertoire of pre-existing tunes resulting in an increase of "stock formulaic phrases" making them "repetitive and verbose",  they commonly feature Robin Hood's contests with artisans: tinkers, tanners, and butchers.
Among these ballads is Robin Hood and Little John telling the famous story of the quarter-staff fight between the two outlaws.
Dobson and Taylor wrote, 'More generally the Robin of the broadsides is a much less tragic, less heroic and in the last resort less mature figure than his medieval predecessor'.
The 17th century introduced the minstrel Alan-a-Dale. He first appeared in a 17th-century broadside ballad , and unlike many of the characters thus associated, managed to adhere to the legend.
In the 18th century, the stories began to develop a slightly more farcical vein. From this period there are a number of ballads in which Robin is severely 'drubbed' by a succession of tradesmen including a tanner , a tinker , and a ranger.
Yet even in these ballads Robin is more than a mere simpleton: on the contrary, he often acts with great shrewdness.
The tinker, setting out to capture Robin, only manages to fight with him after he has been cheated out of his money and the arrest warrant he is carrying.
In Robin Hood's Golden Prize , Robin disguises himself as a friar and cheats two priests out of their cash. Even when Robin is defeated, he usually tricks his foe into letting him sound his horn, summoning the Merry Men to his aid.
When his enemies do not fall for this ruse, he persuades them to drink with him instead see Robin Hood's Delight. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the Robin Hood ballads were mostly sold in "Garlands" of 16 to 24 Robin Hood ballads; these were crudely printed chap books aimed at the poor.
The garlands added nothing to the substance of the legend but ensured that it continued after the decline of the single broadside ballad.
In , Thomas Percy bishop of Dromore published Reliques of Ancient English Poetry , including ballads from the 17th-century Percy Folio manuscript which had not previously been printed, most notably Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne which is generally regarded as in substance a genuine late medieval ballad.
The only significant omission was Robin Hood and the Monk which would eventually be printed in Ritson's interpretation of Robin Hood was also influential, having influenced the modern concept of stealing from the rich and giving to the poor as it exists today.
In his preface to the collection, Ritson assembled an account of Robin Hood's life from the various sources available to him, and concluded that Robin Hood was born in around , and thus had been active in the reign of Richard I.
He thought that Robin was of aristocratic extraction, with at least 'some pretension' to the title of Earl of Huntingdon, that he was born in an unlocated Nottinghamshire village of Locksley and that his original name was Robert Fitzooth.
Ritson gave the date of Robin Hood's death as 18 November , when he would have been around 87 years old. In copious and informative notes Ritson defends every point of his version of Robin Hood's life.
Nevertheless, Dobson and Taylor credit Ritson with having 'an incalculable effect in promoting the still continuing quest for the man behind the myth', and note that his work remains an 'indispensable handbook to the outlaw legend even now'.
Ritson's friend Walter Scott used Ritson's anthology collection as a source for his picture of Robin Hood in Ivanhoe , written in , which did much to shape the modern legend.
In the 19th century, the Robin Hood legend was first specifically adapted for children. Children's editions of the garlands were produced and in , a children's edition of Ritson's Robin Hood collection was published.
Children's novels began to appear shortly thereafter. It is not that children did not read Robin Hood stories before, but this is the first appearance of a Robin Hood literature specifically aimed at them.
Egan made Robin Hood of noble birth but raised by the forestor Gilbert Hood. Nevertheless, the adventures are still more local than national in scope: while King Richard's participation in the Crusades is mentioned in passing, Robin takes no stand against Prince John, and plays no part in raising the ransom to free Richard.
These developments are part of the 20th-century Robin Hood myth. Pyle's Robin Hood is a yeoman and not an aristocrat. The idea of Robin Hood as a high-minded Saxon fighting Norman lords also originates in the 19th century.
In this last work in particular, the modern Robin Hood—'King of Outlaws and prince of good fellows! The 20th century grafted still further details on to the original legends.
The film, The Adventures of Robin Hood , starring Errol Flynn and Olivia de Havilland , portrayed Robin as a hero on a national scale, leading the oppressed Saxons in revolt against their Norman overlords while Richard the Lionheart fought in the Crusades; this movie established itself so definitively that many studios resorted to movies about his son invented for that purpose rather than compete with the image of this one.
In , during the McCarthy era , a Republican member of the Indiana Textbook Commission called for a ban of Robin Hood from all Indiana school books for promoting communism because he stole from the rich to give to the poor.
In the animated Disney film, Robin Hood , the title character is portrayed as an anthropomorphic fox voiced by Brian Bedford. Years before Robin Hood had even entered production, Disney had considered doing a project on Reynard the Fox.
However, due to concerns that Reynard was unsuitable as a hero, animator Ken Anderson adapted some elements from Reynard into Robin Hood , thus making the title character a fox.
The British-American film Robin and Marian , starring Sean Connery as Robin Hood and Audrey Hepburn as Maid Marian, portrays the figures in later years after Robin has returned from service with Richard the Lionheart in a foreign crusade and Marian has gone into seclusion in a nunnery.
This is the first in popular culture to portray King Richard as less than perfect. The movie version Robin Hood , did not include a Saracen character.
The character Azeem in the movie Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves was originally called Nasir, until a crew member who had worked on Robin of Sherwood pointed out that the Nasir character was not part of the original legend and was created for the show Robin of Sherwood.
The name was immediately changed to Azeem to avoid any potential copyright issues. The historicity of Robin Hood has been debated for centuries.
A difficulty with any such historical research is that Robert was a very common given name in medieval England , and 'Robin' or Robyn was its very common diminutive , especially in the 13th century;  it is a French hypocorism ,  already mentioned in the Roman de Renart in the 12th century.
The surname Hood or Hude, Hode, etc. It is therefore unsurprising that medieval records mention a number of people called 'Robert Hood' or 'Robin Hood', some of whom are known to have fallen foul of the law.
The earliest recorded example, in connection with May games in Somerset , dates from The oldest references to Robin Hood are not historical records, or even ballads recounting his exploits, but hints and allusions found in various works.
From onward, the names "Robinhood", "Robehod", or "Robbehod" occur in the rolls of several English Justices as nicknames or descriptions of malefactors.
The majority of these references date from the late 13th century. JimmyPrince: Robin Hood sta caricando Aggiungi ai tuoi Preferiti E' nei tuoi Preferiti!
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The Society has successfully campaigned along with other pressure groups on numerous Robin Hood related issues and also lent its support to various good causes and promotional initiatives.
To help fund its activities, the Society seeks sponsorship where appropriate and also operates an on-line shop stocking gifts and souvenirs.
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