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Lakers general manager Mitch Kupchak had spoken to Bryant about his extensive playing time 10 days earlier, but Bryant insisted the minutes needed to continue given the Lakers' playoff push.

However, The New York Times called his leading of the Lakers back into playoff contention "perhaps some of the finest work of his career. Bryant's assists were the second-highest of his career and his field goal percentage was its highest since — Playing without Bryant, the Lakers were swept in four games by the San Antonio Spurs in the first round of the playoffs.

Bryant resumed practicing in November , after the — season had already begun. On December 17, Bryant matched his season high of 21 points in a 96—92 win over Memphis, but he suffered a lateral tibial plateau fracture in his left knee that was expected to sideline him for six weeks.

Bryant did not feel he was deserving of the selection, and some likened it to a career achievement award for his past performance.

At the time, the team was 22—42 and tied for the worst record in the Western Conference. The Lakers finished 27—55 and missed the playoffs for the first time since Bryant returned for the —15 season , his 19th season with the Lakers, [] who had replaced D'Antoni with Bryant's former Lakers teammate, Byron Scott.

After recovering to play in the —16 preseason, [] Bryant suffered a calf injury and missed the final two weeks of exhibition games.

Bryant scored just four points in 25 minutes on 1-for shooting, matching the worst-shooting game of his career in which he attempted at least five shots.

On November 29, , Bryant announced via The Players' Tribune that he would be retiring at the end of the season. My love for this city, this team and for each of you will never fade.

Thank you for this incredible journey. At the time of his announcement, he was second on the team in minutes And I feel good about that", he said.

Bryant requested that opposing teams on the road not hold any on-court ceremonies in his honor or present him any gifts in public. On February 3, Bryant made seven three-pointers and scored a then season-high 38 points, including 14 of the team's 18 points in the last of the game, for a — win over the Minnesota Timberwolves.

The win ended a game losing streak, and the Lakers averted establishing the longest losing streak in franchise history.

Having moved to small forward that season, Bryant was selected as a frontcourt starter for the first time. In the season finale on April 13, Bryant scored an NBA season-high 60 points against Utah in his last NBA game, outscoring the entire Jazz team 23—21 in the fourth quarter, in the Lakers' —96 victory.

Bryant declined to play in the Olympics because he was getting married in the off-season. Bryant's United States national team career finally began in Bryant averaged Bryant scored 20 points, including 13 in the fourth quarter, along with six assists, as Team USA defeated Spain — in the gold medal game on August 24, , for its first gold medal in a worldwide competition since the Olympics.

Bryant rejoined the national team for the Summer Olympics. Bryant primarily played as a shooting guard. Bryant established a reputation for taking shots in the closing moments of tight games, [] [] [] even when he was double or triple-teamed, [] and was noted as one of the premier closers in the NBA.

When his shot is off, Kobe will pound away relentlessly until his luck turns. In addition to his abilities on offense, Bryant also established himself as a standout defensive player.

Bryant was also lauded for his work ethic. It was as if the other players were now his partners, not his personal spear-carriers. Source: []. Bryant was called "one of the greatest players in the history of our game" by NBA commissioner Adam Silver , [] and The New York Times wrote that he had "one of the most decorated careers in the history of the sport.

With career averages of He scored at least 50 points 24 times in his career, which is third in league history behind Jordan 31 and Chamberlain ; [] six times Bryant scored at least He led the Lakers to two more championships in and , winning the Finals MVP award on both occasions.

Bryant was the youngest of three children. He grew up with two older sisters, Sharia and Shaya, and had a close relationship with them until his death.

In November , year-old Bryant met year-old Vanessa Laine while she was working as a background dancer on the Tha Eastsidaz music video "G'd Up".

The two began dating and became engaged six months later in May , [] while Laine was still a senior at Marina High School in Huntington Beach , California.

To avoid media scrutiny, she finished high school through independent study. Vanessa said Bryant "loved her too much for one".

They married on April 18, , at St. Bryant's parents were opposed to the marriage for a number of reasons. Reportedly Bryant's parents had problems with him marrying so young, especially to a woman who was not African-American.

The Bryants' first child was born in January Due to an ectopic pregnancy , Vanessa suffered a miscarriage in the spring of Bryant was a practicing Catholic.

He said his faith and a priest helped him through difficult times, such as the period following his accusation of rape.

A Catholic cantor said she was inspired by Bryant's faith, and the respect that he showed her.

Bryant and his daughter, Gianna, received the Eucharist together just hours before they died. Bryant was multilingual.

He was fluent in English, Italian and Spanish. In , Bryant had a legal disagreement with an auction house over memorabilia from his early years that his mother had put up for auction.

However, Bryant's lawyers asked the auction house to return the items. Bryant's parents apologized to him for the misunderstanding in a written statement, and appreciated the financial support he had given them over the years.

In the summer of , the sheriff's office of Eagle, Colorado , arrested Bryant in connection with an investigation of a sexual assault complaint filed by a year-old hotel employee.

The accuser stated that Bryant raped her in his hotel room the night before Bryant was to have the procedure. Bryant admitted to an adulterous sexual encounter with his accuser but denied her sexual assault allegation.

The accusation tarnished Bryant's reputation, and the public's perception of him plummeted; his endorsement contracts with McDonald's and Nutella were terminated.

Sales for Bryant's replica jersey fell significantly. Afterward, Bryant agreed to apologize to her for the incident, including his public mea culpa : [] [].

Although I truly believe this encounter between us was consensual, I recognize now that she did not and does not view this incident the same way I did.

After months of reviewing discovery, listening to her attorney, and even her testimony in person, I now understand how she feels that she did not consent to this encounter.

The accuser filed a separate lawsuit against Bryant, which the two sides settled privately. Many companies like McDonald's and Ferrero SpA terminated his contracts when rape allegations against him became public.

In a video promoting Nike's Hyperdunk shoes, Bryant appears to jump over a speeding Aston Martin. The stunt was considered to be fake, and the Los Angeles Times said a real stunt would probably be a violation of Bryant's Lakers contract.

However, it was not for anything basketball related; rather, it was about Bryant being a big fan of FC Barcelona.

On December 13, , Bryant signed a two-year endorsement deal with Turkey's national airline, Turkish Airlines. The deal involved Bryant being in a promotional film to be aired in over 80 countries in addition to his being used in digital, print and billboard advertising.

In the airline's latest commercial, the duo competes to win the attention of a young boy. The group was signed by Sony Entertainment , but the company's ultimate goal was to eliminate the group and have Bryant record on his own.

The label wanted to capitalize on Bryant's youth and NBA fame. Bryant even appeared on Lakers teammate O'Neal's Respect , starting the track "3 X's Dope", though Bryant's name was not listed on the credits.

Sony pushed Bryant from his roots of underground hip hop into a more radio-friendly sound. His debut album, Visions , was scheduled to release in the spring of The first single, "K.

E'", featured supermodel Tyra Banks singing the hook. Sony abandoned plans for the album, which was never released, and dropped Bryant later that year.

The Sony president who originally signed Bryant had already left, and Bryant's other backers had mostly abandoned him.

Afterward, Bryant co-founded an independent record label, Heads High Entertainment, but it folded within a year.

The song was also used by Sprite in its marketing campaign in China. In , rapper Lil Wayne titled a song "Kobe Bryant". Bryant made his acting debut in , appearing in an episode of Moesha.

He had met the show's star, Brandy , earlier in the year at a Nike All-Star basketball game, and then a couple of months later in May , Brandy was Bryant's date to his high school senior prom.

In , he appeared on an episode of Hang Time , this was followed by a guest appearance on the Nickelodeon sketch comedy series All That , and then appeared on MTV 's Ridiculousness in It featured his insights into the game of basketball and in-depth analyses of games and individual players.

Its goals are "helping young people in need, encouraging the development of physical and social skills through sports and assisting the homeless".

Bryant spoke of the injustice aimed at homeless people who are blamed for their situation, saying that homelessness should not be ignored or made a low priority.

Bryant said he wanted more out of life than just a successful basketball career. Bryant established Kobe Inc.

The headquarters are in Newport Beach, California. In , Bryant launched a production company called Granity Studios, which developed different media, ranging from films, to television shows, to novels.

In , Bryant became the first African-American to win the Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film and the first former professional athlete to be nominated and to win an Academy Award in any category for his film Dear Basketball.

The book looks back on his career with photos and his reflections. At the time of his death, he was working with Brazilian author Paulo Coelho on a children's book aimed at inspiring underprivileged children.

After Bryant's death, Coelho deleted the draft, saying in an interview that "it didn't make any sense to publish without him.

Due to light rain and fog that morning, the Los Angeles Police Department helicopters [] and most other air traffic were grounded.

Zoo due to heavy air traffic in the area. Bryant, his daughter, and the other seven occupants were killed.

The cause of the crash is still unknown, as the helicopter was not equipped with a black box. The following day, the Los Angeles County Department of Medical Examiner-Coroner stated that the official cause of death for him and the eight others on the helicopter was blunt force trauma.

The NBA had postponed the Lakers' game against the Clippers just two days after the accident on January 28 — the first time an NBA game had been postponed for any reason since the Boston Marathon bombing led to the postponement of a Celtics game.

The next day, the Lakers played their first game after the crash against the Trail Blazers. Ahead of the match, the Lakers paid tribute to Bryant and all who lost their lives in the crash with a ceremony held just before tip off, with Usher singing " Amazing Grace " and Boyz II Men singing the National Anthem, while Wiz Khalifa and Charlie Puth reunited to perform " See You Again " — originally their tribute to Paul Walker after his death while filming Furious 7 — at halftime.

James also delivered a speech to the crowd before the game, and every player in the Lakers starting lineup was announced with Bryant's name. Also, beginning with the Spurs and the Raptors in their game in San Antonio on the day of the crash, teams paid tribute to Bryant at the start of their games with intentional on-court violations referring to his uniform numbers on their first possession — either a second shot clock or an 8-second backcourt violation.

Elsewhere, the 62nd Annual Grammy Awards went ahead as scheduled at the Staples Center on the day of the crash, but included tributes by multiple artists and groups, including host Alicia Keys opening the show with a tribute speech and joining Boyz II Men to sing " It's So Hard to Say Goodbye to Yesterday ".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American basketball player. Bryant playing for the Los Angeles Lakers in See also: List of career achievements by Kobe Bryant.

Main article: Kobe Bryant sexual assault case. Main article: Calabasas helicopter crash. I Want Kobe. The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 21, Orange County Register.

FOX Sports. Retrieved October 7, CBS Sports. Retrieved February 27, Sports Illustrated. Retrieved February 14, Entertainment Weekly.

May 16, Retrieved May 16, NBC News. Archived from the original on March 6, Retrieved August 5, January 26, Catholic News Agency.

Retrieved January 26, NBC Los Angeles. Retrieved January 28, Retrieved February 2, Los Angeles Times. January 27, Archived from the original on April 12, Lui diceva: "Io qui mi sento in pace " ".

July 25, BBC Sport. June 4, Retrieved June 8, Barcelona Game". Bleacher Report. Basketball Digest. Retrieved February 25, June 1, The Philadelphia Inquirer.

Retrieved January 14, USA Today. April 21, Retrieved September 15, Retrieved December 26, Archived from the original on March 30, Archived from the original on March 22, Retrieved May 7, Showboat: The Life of Kobe Bryant.

Little, Brown and Company. May 7, Aces Hoops. Turner Sports Interactive, Inc. Archived from the original on March 8, Archived from the original on December 5, Archived from the original on December 14, Retrieved January 15, Archived from the original on February 19, January 31, Retrieved February 9, Long Beach Press-Telegram.

February 25, Winston-Salem Journal. Archived from the original on October 15, Retrieved October 30, Archived from the original on October 9, Los Angeles Daily News.

Archived from the original on November 30, Sporting News. Retrieved December 5, Contemporary Black Biography. Farmington Hills, Mich.

Retrieved December 6, Basketball Daily. January 30, Archived from the original on January 24, Retrieved February 18, Archived from the original on February 12, Archived from the original on July 25, Retrieved January 27, Archived from the original on January 30, August 23, Archived from the original on December 22, May 4, Basketball Reference.

Retrieved December 7, Archived from the original on June 28, Archived from the original on July 9, Retrieved June 23, Archived from the original on May 11, The Raw Story.

Agence France-Presse. May 12, Archived from the original on September 5, The Buffalo News. Archived from the original on March 14, Retrieved June 19, May 22, Retrieved October 28, February 6, Archived from the original on December 1, Retrieved April 24, June 14, Archived from the original on August 9, San Antonio Spurs".

July 16, Associated Press. July 6, Archived from the original on April 30, Los Angeles Lakers 2 ". Archived from the original on June 20, Archived from the original on June 29, February 2, Retrieved June 25, March 30, Retrieved January 31, The Washington Post.

January 18, Retrieved January 17, February 19, Archived from the original on April 11, Retrieved July 28, What happened after Shaq and Kobe got entangled in the lane during the first quarter?

Nothing but laughter all around. Bryant Erupts as Lakers Roll". Archived from the original on January 25, Archived from the original on December 4, Pro Basketball Talk.

Archived from the original on December 6, The Oklahoman. Archived from the original on June 9, Orlando Sentinel. December 14, Archived from the original on December 15, Archived from the original on March 16, Los Angeles Lakers.

November 16, Retrieved January 5, Retrieved May 25, Los Angeles lakers 7 ". Archived from the original on July 24, Retrieved July 19, Archived from the original on October 16, Archived from the original on June 25, Archived from the original on June 23, Archived from the original on November 4, Retrieved July 1, Archived from the original on April 9, The Columbus Dispatch.

Archived from the original on September 21, — via HighBeam. The Bonham Group. May 28, May 30, Retrieved October 16, July 31, May 31, Archived from the original on September 28, Archived from the original on September 20, Retrieved July 18, Are you kidding me?

Andrew Bynum? F—ing ship his ass out. Retrieved August 1, There was the infamous video by the self-described Kobe Video Guys when Bryant profanely vented to a couple of men at a Newport Beach shopping mall, who happened to be recording it, about the Lakers holding on to Andrew Bynum when they could have dealt him for Jason Kidd.

CBC Sports. December 23, Retrieved February 20, March 28, February 14, Retrieved May 9, September 9, Retrieved June 18, Archived from the original on June 24, Archived from the original on June 12, Archived from the original on June 17, Archived from the original on January 22, December 8, Archived from the original on October 2, Retrieved January 25, January 12, Retrieved September 9, February 16, Archived from the original on May 1, Retrieved July 14, Retrieved May 28, Retrieved June 15, Archived from the original on April 24, Retrieved December 9, Lakers win 11th straight, Bryant injures finger Archived August 12, , at the Wayback Machine , sports.

Kobe's jumper at OT buzzer lifts Lakers over Bucks , sports. January 2, Archived from the original on March 19, Beat LA? Not this time for Celtics , sports.

Retrieved July 15, Kobe Bryant's game winner in 99—98 victory over Memphis Grizzlies shows clutchness can't be duplicated , sports.

Retrieved June 21, Lakers snap 3-game skid on Bryant's late jumper , sports. Lakers Capture Franchise Title No. San Diego Union Tribune.

November 4, Archived from the original on October 10, Archived from the original on February 5, Retrieved January 30, Bryant became the youngest player to reach 27, points on a 3-pointer late in the third quarter, but he frequently was a one-man show on offense.

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Retrieved March 9, April 15, Michael April 14, Retrieved April 23, CBS News. May 8, December 25, Archived from the original on January 12, New York Post.

Most of the largest earthquakes in Japan are caused by subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate or Pacific Plate , with mechanisms that involve either energy released within the subducting plate or the accumulation and sudden release of stress in the overlying plate.

Earthquakes of these types are especially frequent in the coastal regions of northeastern Japan. The Great Hanshin earthquake belonged to a third type, called an "inland shallow earthquake".

The Great Hanshin earthquake began north of the island of Awaji, which lies just south of Kobe.

It spread toward the southwest along the Nojima Fault on Awaji and toward the northeast along the Suma and Suwayama faults, which run through the center of Kobe.

The Mj 7. It lasted for 20 seconds. During this time the south side of the Nojima Fault moved 1. There were four foreshocks , beginning with the largest Mj 3.

It was the first time that an earthquake in Japan was officially measured at a seismic intensity shindo in Japanese of the highest Level 7 on the scale of Japan Meteorological Agency JMA.

After the earthquake, seismic intensity observation in Japan was fully mechanized from April and JMA seismic intensity Levels 5 and 6 were each divided into 2 levels from October An on-the spot investigation by JMA concluded that tremors by this earthquake were at seismic intensity of Level 7 in particular areas in northern Awaji Island now Awaji City and in the cities of Kobe , Ashiya , Nishinomiya and Takarazuka.

Damage was extremely widespread and severe. Structures irreparably damaged by the quake included nearly , buildings, [3] [12] numerous elevated road and rail bridges, and of the quays in the port of Kobe.

The quake triggered around fires, [3] which raged over large portions of the city. In addition, residents were afraid to return home because of aftershocks that lasted several days 74 of which were strong enough to be felt.

A total of 68 children under the age of 18 were orphaned, while additional children lost one parent. One in five of the buildings in the worst-hit areas were completely destroyed or rendered uninhabitable.

High rise buildings that were built after the modern building code suffered little; however, those that were not constructed to these standards suffered serious structural damage.

Most of the older traditional houses had heavy tiled roofs which weighed around two tons, intended to resist the frequent typhoons that plagued Kobe, but they were only held up by a light wood support frame.

When the wood supports gave way, the roof crushed the unreinforced walls and floors in a pancake collapse.

Newer homes have reinforced walls and lighter roofs to avoid this, but are more susceptible to typhoons. The damage to highways and subways was the most graphic image of the earthquake, and images of the collapsed elevated Kobe Route of the Hanshin Expressway made front pages of newspapers worldwide.

Most people in Japan believed those structures to be relatively safe from earthquake damage because of the steel-reinforced concrete design. Although the initial belief was construction had been negligent, it was later shown that most of the collapsed structures were constructed properly according to the building codes in force in the s.

However, the steel-reinforcement specifications in the s regulations had already been discovered to be inadequate and revised several times, the latest revision being in , which proved effective but only applied to new structures.

Ten spans of the Kobe Route elevated expressway were knocked over in three locations across Kobe and Nishinomiya, blocking a link that carried forty percent of Osaka-Kobe road traffic.

Half of the elevated expressway's piers were damaged in some way, and the entire route was not reopened until September 30, Three bridges on the less heavily used Route 2 were damaged, but the highway was reopened well ahead of Route 3 and served as one of the main intercity road links for a time.

The Meishin Expressway was only lightly damaged, but was closed during the day until February 17, so that emergency vehicles could easily access the hardest-hit areas to the west.

It wasn't until July 29 that all four lanes were open to traffic along one section. Most railways in the region were also damaged.

Wooden supports collapsed inside supposedly solid concrete pilings under the tracks of the Shinkansen high-speed rail line, causing the entire line to shut down.

The Kobe Municipal Subway resumed operation the day after the earthquake with limited service between Seishin-Chuo and Itayado stations along with the Hokushin Kyuko Electric Railway between Tanigami and Shin-Kobe ; service resumed across the entire line on February 16, , with full service resuming a month later after repairs were completed.

Trains continued to operate with speed restrictions until July 21, However, the newly completed artificial island supporting Kansai International Airport was not significantly affected, due to being further away from the epicenter and because it was built to the latest standards.

Outside Japan the earthquake is commonly known as the Kobe earthquake. Hanshin refers to the region between Osaka and Kobe. The sheer size of the earthquake caused a major decline in Japanese stock markets, with the Nikkei index plunging by 1, points on the day following the quake.

This financial damage was the immediate cause for the collapse of Barings Bank due to the actions of Nick Leeson , who had speculated vast amounts of money on Japanese and Singaporean derivatives.

Discussions of Japan's " Lost Decade " tend towards purely economic analysis, and neglect the impact of the earthquake on the Japanese economy which at the time was already suffering from recession.

Despite this devastation in a big production center, the local economy recovered very quickly. The fact that volunteers from all over Japan converged on Kobe to help victims of the quake was an important event in the history of volunteerism in Japan.

The year is often regarded as a turning point in the emergence of volunteerism as a major form of civic engagement. In December , the government declared January 17 a national "Disaster Prevention and Volunteerism Day", and the week from January 15 to 21 a national "Disaster Prevention and Volunteerism Week", to be commemorated with lectures, seminars, and other events designed to encourage voluntary disaster preparedness and relief efforts.

The earthquake proved to be a major wake-up call for Japanese disaster prevention authorities. Japan installed rubber blocks under bridges to absorb the shock and rebuilt buildings further apart to prevent collateral damage.

The Ground Self-Defense Forces were given automatic authority to respond to earthquakes over a certain magnitude, which allowed them to deploy to the Niigata region within minutes.

Control over fire response was likewise handed over from local fire departments to a central command base in Tokyo and Kyoto. In response to the widespread damage to transportation infrastructure, and the resulting effect on emergency response times in the disaster area, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport began designating special disaster prevention routes and reinforcing the roads and surrounding buildings so as to keep them as intact as possible in the event of another earthquake.

The Kobe Luminarie is an event held for approximately two weeks every December. A street leading from the Daimaru store in Motomachi to Higashi Yuenchi Park next to Kobe city hall is decorated with arches of multicoloured lights that were donated by the Italian government.

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